Statistica Sinica 27 (2017), 1757-1777
Abstract: Second-generation sequencing technologies have replaced array-based technologies and become the default method for genomics and epigenomics analysis. Second-generation sequencing technologies sequence tens of millions of DNA/cDNA fragments in parallel. After the resulting sequences (short reads) are mapped to the genome, one gets a sequence of short read counts along the genome. Effective extraction of signals in these short read counts is the key to the success of sequencing technologies. Nonparametric methods, in particular smoothing splines, have been used extensively for modeling and processing single sequencing samples. However, nonparametric joint modeling of multiple second-generation sequencing samples is still lacking due to computational cost. In this article, we develop an adaptive basis selection method for efficient computation of exponential family smoothing splines for modeling multiple second-generation sequencing samples. Our adaptive basis selection gives a sparse approximation of smoothing splines, yielding a lower-dimensional effective model space for a more scalable computation. The asymptotic analysis shows that the effective model space is rich enough to retain essential features of the data. Moreover, exponential family smoothing spline models computed via adaptive basis selection are shown to have good statistical properties, e.g., convergence at the same rate as that of full basis exponential family smoothing splines. The empirical performance is demonstrated through simulation studies and two second-generation sequencing data examples.
Key words and phrases: Bisulfite sequencing, generalized linear model, nonparametric regression, penalized likelihood, RNA-seq, sampling.