Statistica Sinica 27 (2017), 1731-1756
Abstract: Efforts to develop more efficient multiple hypothesis testing procedures for false discovery rate (FDR) control have focused on incorporating an estimate of the proportion of true null hypotheses (such procedures are called adaptive) or exploiting heterogeneity across tests via some optimal weighting scheme. This paper combines these approaches using a weighted adaptive multiple decision function (WAMDF) framework. Optimal weights for a flexible random effects model are derived and a WAMDF that controls the FDR for arbitrary weighting schemes when test statistics are independent under the null hypotheses is given. Asymptotic and numerical assessment reveals that, under weak dependence, the proposed WAMDFs provide more efficient FDR control even if optimal weights are misspecified. The robustness and flexibility of the proposed methodology facilitates the development of more efficient, yet practical, FDR procedures for heterogeneous data. To illustrate, two different weighted adaptive FDR methods for heterogeneous sample sizes are developed and applied to data.
Key words and phrases: Decision function, multiple testing, p-value, weighted p-value.